Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) is a severe infective disease characterized by neuropathological changes in several fish species associated with high mortality. The etiological agent is a virus belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. To date, four different betanodavirus species have been officially recognized by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), namely the red-spotted grouper- (RGNNV), the striped jack- (SJNNV), the barfin flounder- (BFNNV) and the tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV). Moreover, two reassortants RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV have been described. Betanodaviruses can be classified into three different serotypes (A, B and C) that are antigenically different, so none (between serotype A and C) or partial (between serotype B and C) cross-immunoreactivity has been detected in vitro. In this study we investigated the in vivo cross-protection of the two main betanodavirus species (RGNNV and SJNNV), which belong to distinct serotype, by immunizing intraperitoneally (IP) juvenile sea bass with formalin inactivated RGNNV and SJNNV vaccines, followed by a challenge with RGNNV. Fish IP vaccinated with inactivated RGNNV showed a high protection value (85%). Serological analyses highlighted a great specific anti-NNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) production against the homologous virus, while a good seroconversion with low neutralization property was highlighted against the heterologous virus. In fish IP vaccinated with inactivated SJNNV the protection recorded was equal to 25%, significantly lower respect to the one provided by RGNNV IP vaccine. ELISA test detected good IgM production against the homologous virus, and a lower, but still detectable IgM production against the heterologous one. By contrast, serum neutralization test highlighted a poorly detectable antibody production unable to neutralize either the homologous or the heterologous virus. These results confirm that the two serotypes are not cross-protective in vivo. According to these findings, the production of multivalent formulation, or at least the provision of different types of vaccines based on both fish and virus species requirement, should be recommended in order to broaden the range of protection.