Cardiovasc Diabetol 2017 10 4;16(1):124. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
R3i Foundation, St. Alban-Anlage 46, Basel, Switzerland.
Despite best evidence-based treatment including statins, residual cardiovascular risk poses a major challenge for clinicians in the twenty first century. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia, in particular elevated triglycerides, a marker for increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, is an important contributor to lipid-related residual risk, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current therapeutic options include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists, (fibrates), but these have low potency and limited selectivity for PPARα. Modulating the unique receptor-cofactor binding profile to identify the most potent molecules that induce PPARα-mediated beneficial effects, while at the same time avoiding unwanted side effects, offers a new therapeutic approach and provides the rationale for development of pemafibrate (K-877, Parmodia™), a novel selective PPARα modulator (SPPARMα). In clinical trials, pemafibrate either as monotherapy or as add-on to statin therapy was effective in managing atherogenic dyslipidaemia, with marked reduction of triglycerides, remnant cholesterol and apolipoprotein CIII. Pemafibrate also increased serum fibroblast growth factor 21, implicated in metabolic homeostasis. There were no clinically meaningful adverse effects on hepatic or renal function, including no relevant serum creatinine elevation. A major outcomes study, PROMINENT, will provide definitive evaluation of the role of pemafibrate for management of residual cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia despite statin therapy.