A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4851

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4851
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4852

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4852
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4853

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4853
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: year

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4854

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4854
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: journal-title

Filename: helpers/my_audit_helper.php

Line Number: 4839

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/html/application/helpers/my_audit_helper.php
Line: 4839
Function: _error_handler

File: /var/www/html/application/controllers/Detail.php
Line: 48
Function: pubMedSearch_Global

File: /var/www/html/index.php
Line: 322
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Undefined index: author

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Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts. | PubFacts

Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts.

Authors:
Prof Sisira Siribaddana, MBBS, MD, FCCP, FRCP Edin FRCP Lon
Prof Sisira Siribaddana, MBBS, MD, FCCP, FRCP Edin FRCP Lon
Faculty of Medicine & Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka
Prof
Health
Anuradhapura | Sri Lanka
Karri Silventoinen Aline Jelenkovic Antti Latvala Reijo Sund Yoshie Yokoyama Vilhelmina Ullemar Catarina Almqvist Catherine A Derom Robert F Vlietinck Ruth J F Loos Christian Kandler Chika Honda Fujio Inui Yoshinori Iwatani Mikio Watanabe Esther Rebato Maria A Stazi Corrado Fagnani Sonia Brescianini Yoon-Mi Hur Hoe-Uk Jeong Tessa L Cutler John L Hopper Andreas Busjahn Kimberly J Saudino Fuling Ji Feng Ning Zengchang Pang Richard J Rose Markku Koskenvuo Kauko Heikkilä Wendy Cozen Amie E Hwang Thomas M Mack Sisira H Siribaddana Matthew Hotopf Athula Sumathipala Fruhling Rijsdijk Joohon Sung Jina Kim Jooyeon Lee Sooji Lee Tracy L Nelson Keith E Whitfield Qihua Tan Dongfeng Zhang Clare H Llewellyn Abigail Fisher S Alexandra Burt Kelly L Klump Ariel Knafo-Noam David Mankuta Lior Abramson Sarah E Medland Nicholas G Martin Grant W Montgomery Patrik K E Magnusson Nancy L Pedersen Anna K Dahl Aslan Robin P Corley Brooke M Huibregtse Sevgi Y Öncel Fazil Aliev Robert F Krueger Matt McGue Shandell Pahlen Gonneke Willemsen Meike Bartels Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt Judy L Silberg Lindon J Eaves Hermine H Maes Jennifer R Harris Ingunn Brandt Thomas S Nilsen Finn Rasmussen Per Tynelius Laura A Baker Catherine Tuvblad Juan R Ordoñana Juan F Sánchez-Romera Lucia Colodro-Conde Margaret Gatz David A Butler Paul Lichtenstein Jack H Goldberg K Paige Harden Elliot M Tucker-Drob Glen E Duncan Dedra Buchwald Adam D Tarnoki David L Tarnoki Carol E Franz William S Kremen Michael J Lyons José A Maia Duarte L Freitas Eric Turkheimer Thorkild I A Sørensen Dorret I Boomsma Jaakko Kaprio

Twin Res Hum Genet 2017 10;20(5):395-405

Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM,Helsinki,Finland.

Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2017.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5969906PMC
October 2017
135 Reads
1.920 Impact Factor

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