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    Rack1 function in intestinal epithelia: regulating crypt cell proliferation and regeneration and promoting differentiation and apoptosis.

    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 01 21;314(1):G1-G13. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University , Stanford, California.
    Previously, we showed that receptor for activated C kinase 1 (Rack1) regulates growth of colon cells in vitro, partly by suppressing Src kinase activity at key cell cycle checkpoints, in apoptotic and cell survival pathways and at cell-cell adhesions. Here, we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to assess Rack1's function in intestinal epithelia in vivo. Intestinal Rack1 deficiency resulted in proliferation of crypt cells, diminished differentiation of crypt cells into enterocyte, goblet, and enteroendocrine cell lineages, and expansion of Paneth cell populations. Following radiation injury, the morphology of Rack1-deleted small bowel was strikingly abnormal with development of large polypoid structures that contained many partly formed villi, numerous back-to-back elongated and regenerating crypts, and high-grade dysplasia in surface epithelia. These abnormalities were not observed in Rack1-expressing areas of intestine or in control mice. Following irradiation, apoptosis of enterocytes was strikingly reduced in Rack1-deleted epithelia. These novel findings reveal key functions for Rack1 in regulating growth of intestinal epithelia: suppressing crypt cell proliferation and regeneration, promoting differentiation and apoptosis, and repressing development of neoplasia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings reveal novel functions for receptor for activated C kinase 1 (Rack1) in regulating growth of intestinal epithelia: suppressing crypt cell proliferation and regeneration, promoting differentiation and apoptosis, and repressing development of neoplasia.
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