Background: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed.
Objectives: To illustrate frequent pediatric skin infections and pitfalls in view of imitators and differential diagnoses.
Materials And Methods: A photo quiz is presented with the discussion of a selection of acute pediatric skin infections in comparison to their infectious or noninfectious differential diagnoses.
Results: The following infectious skin conditions and imitators are described and clinical clues for differentiation highlighted: eczema herpeticum and bacterial superinfection of atopic dermatitis; exanthematous hand, foot and mouth disease and varicella infection; erythema chronicum multilocularis and anular urticaria; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome and Gianotti-Crosti-like reaction; bacterial folliculitis of the scalp and kerion celsi and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of the scalp; cutaneous Leishmaniasis and idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma; allergic and bacterial lymphangitis; bullous impetigo contagiosa and nonaccidental scalding.
Conclusions: Careful anamnesis and skin examination with attention to the here illustrated differential diagnoses are essential to avoid pitfalls in the evaluation of acute pediatric skin infections.
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