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    C1q/TNF-related protein 9 improves the anti-contractile effects of perivascular adipose tissue via the AMPK-eNOS pathway in diet-induced obese mice.

    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2018 Jan 25;45(1):50-57. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.
    The anti-contractile property of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is abolished through an endothelium-dependent pathway in obesity. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP)9 improved endothelial function by promoting endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. The aims of this study were to investigate whether CTRP9 improves the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and protects against PVAT dysfunction in obese mice. The mice were treated with a high-fat diet with or without CTRP9 treatment. Thoracic aortas with or without PVAT (PVAT+ or PVAT-) were prepared, and concentration-dependent responses to phenylephrine were measured. Obese mice showed a significantly increased contractile response, which was suppressed by CTRP9 treatment both with and without PVAT. PVAT significantly reduced the anti-contractile effect in obese mice, which was partially restored by CTRP9 treatment. Treatment of the aortic rings (PVAT+) with inhibitors of AMP protein kinase (AMPK), Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) attenuated the beneficial effect of CTRP9 on PVAT. Similar results were observed when we pretreated the aortic rings with CTRP9 ex vivo. CTRP9 significantly enhanced the phosphorylation levels of AMPK, Akt and eNOS, and reduced superoxide production and TNF-α levels in PVAT from obese mice. Our study suggests that CTRP9 enhanced the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and improved PVAT function by activating the AMPK-eNOS pathway in obese mice.
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