Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 01 31;314(1):L54-L68. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
Texas Lung Injury Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler , Tyler, Texas.
Elevated active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has an adverse effect on the outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) in tetracycline-induced pleural injury in rabbits. To enhance IPFT with prourokinase (scuPA), two mechanistically distinct approaches to targeting PAI-1 were tested: slowing its reaction with urokinase (uPA) and monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated PAI-1 inactivation. Removing positively charged residues at the "PAI-1 docking site" (RHRGGS→AAAAAA) of uPA results in a 60-fold decrease in the rate of inhibition by PAI-1. Mutant prourokinase (0.0625-0.5 mg/kg; n = 12) showed efficacy comparable to wild-type scuPA and did not change IPFT outcomes ( P > 0.05). Notably, the rate of PAI-1-independent intrapleural inactivation of mutant uPA was 2 times higher ( P < 0.05) than that of the wild-type enzyme. Trapping PAI-1 in a "molecular sandwich"-type complex with catalytically inactive two-chain urokinase with SerAla substitution (S195A-tcuPA; 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) did not improve the efficacy of IPFT with scuPA (0.0625-0.5 mg/kg; n = 11). IPFT failed in the presence of MA-56A7C10 (0.5 mg/kg; n = 2), which forms a stable intrapleural molecular sandwich complex, allowing active PAI-1 to accumulate by blocking its transition to a latent form. In contrast, inactivation of PAI-1 by accelerating the active-to-latent transition mediated by mAb MA-33B8 (0.5 mg/kg; n = 2) improved the efficacy of IPFT with scuPA (0.25 mg/kg). Thus, under conditions of slow (4-8 h) fibrinolysis in tetracycline-induced pleural injury in rabbits, only the inactivation of PAI-1, but not a decrease in the rate of its reaction with uPA, enhances IPFT. Therefore the rate of fibrinolysis, which varies in different pathologic states, could affect the selection of PAI-1 inhibitors to enhance fibrinolytic therapy.