Sci Rep 2017 08 25;7(1):9483. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
Department of General Biophysics, Institute of Biophysics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236, Lodz, Poland.
Differentiation of certain cell types is followed by a downregulation of PARP1 expression. We show that the reduction in the abundance of PARP1 in hematopoietic progenitor cells and monocytes is tightly controlled by the cell cycle. The differentiation-associated cell cycle exit induces E2F1 replacement with E2F4 at the PARP1 promoter and the assembly of an E2F4-RBL2-HDAC1-BRM(SWI/SNF) repressor complex which deacetylates nucleosomes and compacts chromatin. In G1 arrested cells, PARP1 transcription is reduced by the recruitment of E2F1-RB1-HDAC1-EZH2(PRC2)-BRM/BRG1(SWI/SNF), which additionally trimethylates H3K27 and causes an even higher increase in nucleosome density. The re-establishment of an active chromatin structure by treating post-mitotic monocytes with the HDAC inhibitor and G1 arrested cells with a combination of HDAC and EZH2 inhibitors restores PARP1 expression completely but does not affect the interaction between the components of the repressor complex with chromatin. This suggests that RB1 and RBL2, as well as PRC2, SWI/SNF and HDAC1, do not interfere with the transcription machinery. Interestingly, reinstatement of PARP1 expression by the silencing of RBL2 or by the inhibition of HDACs in monocytes and by transfection with the PARP1 expression vector in differentiated THP-1 cells substantially increased transcription of pluripotency stem cell factors such as POU5F1, SOX2 and NANOG.