Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2017 Aug 25;85(8):450-462. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
Klinik für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen.
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Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2001 Mar;59(1):97-100
Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil.
Laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of laryngeal muscles involved with vocalization. The introduction of botulinum toxin in the treatment of laryngeal dystonia had a major clinical impact due to the striking improvement of symptoms. We report the preliminary results of therapeutical use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of twelve patients with laryngeal dystonia. Read More
Eur J Neurol 2006 Feb;13 Suppl 1:36-41
The Parkinson's and Movement Disorder Institute, Fountain Valley, CA 92708, USA.
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a focal dystonia characterized by a strained, strangled voice. Botulinum toxin is a symptomatic treatment for SD and has become the mainstay of therapy over the last two decades. In this manuscript, we briefly review different laryngeal muscle hyperactivity syndromes, their injection techniques and toxins currently available. Read More
Laryngoscope 2013 Jun 10;123(6):1560-3. Epub 2013 May 10.
Department of Neurosciences, Institute of Otolaryngology, Padova University, Padova, Italy.
Objectives/hypothesis: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic condition, characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep, which affects up to 5% of adults in the Western population. The muscle tone of the human body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, thus causing airway obstruction and leading to sleep apnea. We report a case of a 68-years old male in which dystonic closure of the larynx during sleep caused OSAS. Read More