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    Control of Metastasis by NK Cells.
    Cancer Cell 2017 Aug;32(2):135-154
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA; Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    The metastatic spread of malignant cells to distant anatomical locations is a prominent cause of cancer-related death. Metastasis is governed by cancer-cell-intrinsic mechanisms that enable neoplastic cells to invade the local microenvironment, reach the circulation, and colonize distant sites, including the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, metastasis is regulated by microenvironmental and systemic processes, such as immunosurveillance. Here, we outline the cancer-cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors that regulate metastasis, discuss the key role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of metastatic dissemination, and present potential therapeutic approaches to prevent or target metastatic disease by harnessing NK cells.

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    Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host immune responses against tumor growth and metastasis. The numerous mechanisms used by NK cells to regulate and control cancer metastasis include interactions with tumor cells via specific receptors and ligands as well as direct cytotoxicity and cytokine-induced effector mechanisms. NK cells also play a role in tumor immunosurveillance and inhibition of metastases formation by recognition and killing of tumor cells. Read More
    Immune cell promotion of metastasis.
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    1] Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. [2] Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10543, USA.
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    NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?
    J Immunol Res 2016 12;2016:4684268. Epub 2016 May 12.
    IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, 16132 Genova, Italy.
    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Read More
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    Cancer Res 2016 04 5;76(8):2153-65. Epub 2016 Apr 5.
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    The field of immunotherapy for solid tumors, such as prostate cancer, has been recently focusing on therapies that can counter tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Precise quantification and characterization of the immune infiltrates in tumors is crucial to improve treatment efficacy. Natural killer (NK) cells, major components of the antitumor immune system, have never been isolated from prostate tumors, despite their suspected role in disease progression. Read More