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    New Views into the Genetic Landscape of Metastatic Breast Cancer.
    Cancer Cell 2017 08;32(2):131-133
    Department of Pathology, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA. Electronic address:
    Whether metastasis-specific genetic alterations exist remains controversial. The study by Yates et al. in this issue of Cancer Cell provides evidence that metastases emerge late during primary breast cancer progression and that additional driver mutations are often acquired, posing both challenges and opportunities for precision treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

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    Bone metastasis in prostate cancer: Recurring mitochondrial DNA mutation reveals selective pressure exerted by the bone microenvironment.
    Bone 2015 Sep 5;78:81-6. Epub 2015 May 5.
    Department of Urology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; The Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA 30033, USA; Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Cancer progression and metastasis occur such that cells with acquired mutations enhancing growth and survival (or inhibiting cell death) increase in number, a concept that has been recognized as analogous to Darwinian evolution of species since Peter C. Nowell's description in 1976. Selective forces include those intrinsic to the host (including metastatic site) as well as those resulting from anti-cancer therapies. Read More
    Clonal expansion and linear genome evolution through breast cancer progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis.
    Oncotarget 2015 Mar;6(8):5634-49
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense C, Denmark.
    Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer necessitates knowledge of the degree of genomic concordance between different steps of malignant progression as primary tumors often are used as surrogates of systemic disease. Based on exome sequencing we performed copy number profiling and point mutation detection on successive steps of breast cancer progression from one breast cancer patient, including two different regions of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), primary tumor and an asynchronous metastasis. Read More
    Genomic Evolution of Breast Cancer Metastasis and Relapse.
    Cancer Cell 2017 Aug;32(2):169-184.e7
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. Electronic address:
    Patterns of genomic evolution between primary and metastatic breast cancer have not been studied in large numbers, despite patients with metastatic breast cancer having dismal survival. We sequenced whole genomes or a panel of 365 genes on 299 samples from 170 patients with locally relapsed or metastatic breast cancer. Several lines of analysis indicate that clones seeding metastasis or relapse disseminate late from primary tumors, but continue to acquire mutations, mostly accessing the same mutational processes active in the primary tumor. Read More
    Tumor Evolution in Two Patients with Basal-like Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Genomics Study of Multiple Metastases.
    PLoS Med 2016 Dec 6;13(12):e1002174. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
    Background: Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient deaths and remains a poorly characterized process. It is still unclear when in tumor progression the ability to metastasize arises and whether this ability is inherent to the primary tumor or is acquired well after primary tumor formation. Next-generation sequencing and analytical methods to define clonal heterogeneity provide a means for identifying genetic events and the temporal relationships between these events in the primary and metastatic tumors within an individual. Read More