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    European Dermatology Forum S1-guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of sclerosing diseases of the skin, Part 1: localized scleroderma, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Sep 9;31(9):1401-1424. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    The term 'sclerosing diseases of the skin' comprises specific dermatological entities, which have fibrotic changes of the skin in common. These diseases mostly manifest in different clinical subtypes according to cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement and can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from each other. The present guideline focuses on characteristic clinical and histopathological features, diagnostic scores and the serum autoantibodies most useful for differential diagnosis. In addition, current strategies in the first- and advanced-line therapy of sclerosing skin diseases are addressed in detail. Part 1 of this guideline provides clinicians with an overview of the diagnosis and treatment of localized scleroderma (morphea), and systemic sclerosis including overlap syndromes of systemic sclerosis with diseases of the rheumatological spectrum.

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    European dermatology forum S1-guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of sclerosing diseases of the skin, Part 2: Scleromyxedema, scleredema and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Oct 8;31(10):1581-1594. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    The term 'sclerosing diseases of the skin' comprises specific dermatological entities which have fibrotic changes of the skin in common. These diseases mostly manifest in different clinical subtypes according to cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement and can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from each other. The present guideline focuses on characteristic clinical and histopathological features, diagnostic scores and the serum autoantibodies most useful for differential diagnosis. Read More
    Cutaneous Manifestations of Scleroderma and Scleroderma-Like Disorders: a Comprehensive Review.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2017 Jul 16. Epub 2017 Jul 16.
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
    Scleroderma refers to an autoimmune connective tissue fibrosing disease, including three different subsets: localized scleroderma, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with divergent patterns of organ involvement, autoantibody profiles, management, and prognostic implications. Although systemic sclerosis is considered the disease prototype that causes cutaneous sclerosis, there are many other conditions that can mimic and be confused with SSc. They can be classified into immune-mediated/inflammatory, immune-mediated/inflammatory with abnormal deposit (mucinoses), genetic, drug-induced and toxic, metabolic, panniculitis/vascular, and (para)neoplastic disorders according to clinico-pathological and pathogenetic correlations. Read More
    Autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis and fibrosing syndromes: clinical indications and relevance.
    Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004 Nov;16(6):723-32
    Division of Rheumatology, The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center at Houston, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is associated with a variety of autoantibodies, each of them having their own clinical associations. The fibrosing disorders, other than systemic sclerosis, represent a diverse group of diseases with systemic or localized effect and with limited understanding of their pathogenesis. The purpose of this review is to analyze the literature on the clinical usefulness of examining serum autoantibodies in patients with known or suspected scleroderma and fibrosing disorders. Read More
    Sclerosing disorders of the skin: an overview with focus on histopathological features.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2014 Oct;36(10):763-80
    *Associate Professor of Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; and †Professor of Dermatology and Pathology, Head, Dermatopathology Section, Vice Chairman, Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.
    Sclerosing disorders of the skin consist of a heterogeneous spectrum of entities that share in common cutaneous sclerosis with excessive local accumulation of collagen and/or other extracellular matrix components in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and/or underlying soft tissues. The clinical course of these diseases varies from benign disease with a localized skin involvement to systemic, life-threatening disorders. Thus, a correct diagnosis is extremely significant as these disorders are very different in terms of pathogenesis, course, treatment, and outcome. Read More