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    Relationship of gastric emptying or accommodation with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in health.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2017 Nov 3;313(5):G442-G447. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
    The contributions of gastric emptying (GE) and gastric accommodation (GA) to satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between GA or GE with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in healthy overweight or obese volunteers (total n = 285, 73% women, mean BMI 33.5 kg/m2): 26 prospectively studied obese, otherwise healthy participants and 259 healthy subjects with previous similar GI testing. We assessed GE of solids, gastric volumes, calorie intake at buffet meal, and satiation by measuring volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) by using Ensure nutrient drink test (30 ml/min) and symptoms 30 min after MTV. Relationships between GE or GA with satiety, satiation, and symptoms were analyzed using Spearman rank (rs ) and Pearson (R) linear correlation coefficients. We found a higher VTF during satiation test correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal (rs = 0.535, P < 0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between gastric half-emptying time (GE T1/2) and VTF (rs = -0.317, P < 0.001) and the calorie intake at buffet meal (rs = -0.329, P < 0.001), and an inverse correlation between GE Tlag and GE25% emptied with VTF (rs = -0.273, P < 0.001 and rs = -0.248, P < 0.001, respectively). GE T1/2 was significantly associated with satiation (MTV, R = -0.234, P < 0.0001), nausea (R = 0.145, P = 0.023), pain (R = 0.149, P = 0.012), and higher aggregate symptom score (R = 0.132, P = 0.026). There was no significant correlation between GA and satiation, satiety, postprandial symptoms, or GE. We concluded that GE of solids, rather than GA, is associated with postprandial symptoms, satiation, and satiety in healthy participants.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A higher volume to comfortable fullness postprandially correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying of solids is correlated to satiation (volume to fullness and maximum tolerated volume) and satiety (the calorie intake at buffet meal) and symptoms of nausea, pain, and aggregate symptom score after a fully satiating meal. There was no significant correlation between gastric accommodation and either satiation or satiety indices, postprandial symptoms, or gastric emptying.

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