Neurology 2017 Aug 2;89(9):900-908. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.
Objective: To assess the prognostic value of MOG antibodies (abs) in the differential diagnosis of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS).
Methods: Clinical course, MRI, MOG-abs, AQP4-abs, and CSF cells and oligoclonal bands (OCB) in children with ADS and 24 months of follow-up were reviewed in this observational prospective multicenter hospital-based study.
Results: Two hundred ten children with ADS were included and diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 60), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) (n = 12), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 101), and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 37) after the first episode. MOG-abs were predominantly found in ADEM (57%) and less frequently in NMOSD (25%), CIS (25%), or MS (8%). Increased MOG-ab titers were associated with younger age ( = 0.0001), diagnosis of ADEM ( = 0.005), increased CSF cell counts ( = 0.011), and negative OCB ( = 0.012). At 24-month follow-up, 96 children had no further relapses. Thirty-five children developed recurrent non-MS episodes (63% MOG-, 17% AQP4-abs at onset). Seventy-nine children developed MS (4% MOG-abs at onset). Recurrent non-MS episodes were associated with high MOG-ab titers ( = 0.0003) and older age at onset ( = 0.024). MS was predicted by MS-like MRI ( < 0.0001) and OCB ( = 0.007). An MOG-ab cutoff titer ≥1:1,280 predicted a non-MS course with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100% and a recurrent non-MS course with a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 86%.
Conclusions: Our results show that the presence of MOG-abs strongly depends on the age at disease onset and that high MOG-ab titers were associated with a recurrent non-MS disease course.