Neuroimaging techniques to assess inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neuroscience 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Dipartimento di Neurologia e Psichiatria, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185 Roma, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, IS, Italy.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that represents a leading cause of disability in young adults and is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM). Defining the presence or absence of inflammation on individual basis is a key point in choosing the therapy and monitoring the treatment response. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the most sensitive non-invasive tool to monitor inflammation in the clinical practice. Indeed, in the early phase of inflammation MRI detects new lesions as extrusion of gadolinium contrast agents across the altered blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The occurrence of MRI lesions is used to confirm diagnosis and has been validated as surrogate marker of relapse to monitor response to treatments. However, focal gadolinium-enhancing lesions represent only an aspect of neuroinflammation. Recent studies have suggested the presence of a widespread inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), which is mainly related to microglial cells activation occurring both at the edge of chronic focal lesions and throughout the normal-appearing brain tissue. New imaging techniques have been developed to study diffuse inflammation taking place outside the focal plaques. The scope of this review is to examine the various neuroimaging techniques and those biophysical quantities that can be non-invasively detected to enlighten the different aspects of neuroinflammation. Some techniques are commonly used in the clinical practice, while others are used in the research field to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and the role of inflammation.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.07.055DOI Listing
July 2017
3 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

clinical practice
8
inflammation
8
multiple sclerosis
8
neuroimaging techniques
8
phase inflammation
4
inflammation mri
4
early phase
4
practice early
4
quantities non-invasively
4
biophysical quantities
4
studies suggested
4
mri detects
4
lesions extrusion
4
extrusion gadolinium
4
developed study
4
detects lesions
4
lesions normal-appearing
4
lesions
4
techniques biophysical
4
suggested presence
4

Similar Publications

In Vivo Imaging of Human Neuroinflammation.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 Apr 25;7(4):470-83. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Neuro-Immunology, Neurology Division, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of a growing number of human disorders, including multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. As a result, interest in the development of novel methods to investigate neuroinflammatory processes, for the purpose of diagnosis, development of new therapies, and treatment monitoring, has surged over the past 15 years. Neuroimaging offers a wide array of non- or minimally invasive techniques to characterize neuroinflammatory processes. Read More

View Article
April 2016

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques to better understand multiple sclerosis.

Biophys Rev 2010 May 2;2(2):83-90. Epub 2010 Apr 2.

Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale - UMR CNRS 6612 - Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, 13005, France.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has considerably improved the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Conventional MRI such as T-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T-weighted sequences detect focal lesions of the white matter, damage of the blood-brain barrier, and tissue loss and inflammatory activity within lesions. However, these conventional MRI metrics lack the specificity required for characterizing the underlying pathophysiology, especially diffuse damage occurring throughout the whole central nervous system. Read More

View Article
May 2010

[Use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple sclerosis].

Lijec Vjesn 2006 Sep-Oct;128(9-10):295-308

Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, The Jacobs Neurological Institute and Baird MS Research Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences University Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by demyelination and axonal loss. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging allows the demonstration of spatial and temporal dissemination of multiple sclerosis lesions earlier than is possible from clinical assessments. A variety of conventional magnetic resonance imaging protocols, in conjunction with clinical assessment, are now routinely used to increase the accuracy of diagnosis and long-term prognosis of multiple sclerosis. Read More

View Article
February 2007

Gray matter involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis as shown by magnetic resonance imaging.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2012 Jul;125(13):2361-4

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Objective: To summarize the main findings seen on conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used to assess gray matter (GM) involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Data Sources: The data used in this review were obtained mainly from studies reported in the PubMed database using the terms of multiple sclerosis, gray matter, magnetic resonance imaging.

Study Selection: Relevant literatures on studies of GM involvement in MS patients were identified, retrieved and reviewed. Read More

View Article
July 2012