Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a
    Neuroimaging techniques to assess inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis.
    Neuroscience 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Dipartimento di Neurologia e Psichiatria, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185 Roma, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, IS, Italy.
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that represents a leading cause of disability in young adults and is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM). Defining the presence or absence of inflammation on individual basis is a key point in choosing the therapy and monitoring the treatment response. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the most sensitive non-invasive tool to monitor inflammation in the clinical practice. Indeed, in the early phase of inflammation MRI detects new lesions as extrusion of gadolinium contrast agents across the altered blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The occurrence of MRI lesions is used to confirm diagnosis and has been validated as surrogate marker of relapse to monitor response to treatments. However, focal gadolinium-enhancing lesions represent only an aspect of neuroinflammation. Recent studies have suggested the presence of a widespread inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), which is mainly related to microglial cells activation occurring both at the edge of chronic focal lesions and throughout the normal-appearing brain tissue. New imaging techniques have been developed to study diffuse inflammation taking place outside the focal plaques. The scope of this review is to examine the various neuroimaging techniques and those biophysical quantities that can be non-invasively detected to enlighten the different aspects of neuroinflammation. Some techniques are commonly used in the clinical practice, while others are used in the research field to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and the role of inflammation.

    Similar Publications

    MRI evidence for multiple sclerosis as a diffuse disease of the central nervous system.
    J Neurol 2005 Nov;252 Suppl 5:v16-24
    Neuroimaging Research Unit, Dept. of Neurology Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy.
    The classical view of MS as a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease leading to the formation of focal central nervous system (CNS) white matter (WM) lesions has been recently challenged by pathological studies and by the extensive application of modern MRI-based techniques. There is now overwhelming evidence supporting the following statements: MS causes widespread tissue damage in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the brain and spinal cord, whose extent and severity is more strictly associated to the clinical manifestations of the disease than the extent of focal pathology. Discrete, macroscopic lesions are just the tip of the iceberg of MS pathology. Read More
    Neuroinflammatory component of gray matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.
    Ann Neurol 2016 Nov 25;80(5):776-790. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.
    Objective: In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with (11) C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions, and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation.

    Methods: Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent (11) C-PBR28 MR-PET. MS subjects underwent 7T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation, and neurological and cognitive evaluation. Read More
    Advanced Structural and Functional Brain MRI in Multiple Sclerosis.
    Semin Neurol 2016 Apr 26;36(2):163-76. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system is crucial for an early and reliable diagnosis and monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Focal white matter (WM) lesions, as detected by MRI, are the pathological hallmark of the disease and show some relation to clinical disability, especially in the long run. Gray matter (GM) involvement is evident from disease onset and includes focal (i. Read More
    In Vivo Imaging of Human Neuroinflammation.
    ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 Apr 25;7(4):470-83. Epub 2016 Mar 25.
    Neuro-Immunology, Neurology Division, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of a growing number of human disorders, including multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. As a result, interest in the development of novel methods to investigate neuroinflammatory processes, for the purpose of diagnosis, development of new therapies, and treatment monitoring, has surged over the past 15 years. Neuroimaging offers a wide array of non- or minimally invasive techniques to characterize neuroinflammatory processes. Read More