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    Review of the Nomenclature of the Retaining Ligaments of the Cheek: Frequently Confused Terminology.
    Arch Plast Surg 2017 Jul 15;44(4):266-275. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Area88 Plastic Surgery Clinic, Seoul, Korea.
    Since the time of its inception within facial anatomy, wide variability in the terminology as well as the location and extent of retaining ligaments has resulted in confusion over nomenclature. Confusion over nomenclature also arises with regard to the subcutaneous ligamentous attachments, and in the anatomic location and extent described, particularly for zygomatic and masseteric ligaments. Certain historical terms-McGregor's patch, the platysma auricular ligament, parotid cutaneous ligament, platysma auricular fascia, temporoparotid fasica (Lore's fascia), anterior platysma-cutaneous ligament, and platysma cutaneous ligament-delineate retaining ligaments of related anatomic structures that have been conceptualized in various ways. Confusion around the masseteric cutaneous ligaments arises from inconsistencies in their reported locations in the literature because the size and location of the parotid gland varies so much, and this affects the relationship between the parotid gland and the fascia of the masseter muscle. For the zygomatic ligaments, there is disagreement over how far they extend, with descriptions varying over whether they extend medially beyond the zygomaticus minor muscle. Even the 'main' zygomatic ligament's denotation may vary depending on which subcutaneous plane is used as a reference for naming it. Recent popularity in procedures using threads or injectables has required not only an accurate understanding of the nomenclature of retaining ligaments, but also of their location and extent. The authors have here summarized each retaining ligament with a survey of the different nomenclature that has been introduced by different authors within the most commonly cited published papers.

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    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012 Sep 23;65(9):e241-5. Epub 2012 Mar 23.
    Taylor Laboratory, Room E533, Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Grattan St, Parkville, 3050 Victoria, Australia.
    Background: Lore's fascia and the platysma-auricular ligament are discreet fascial structures anterior and inferior to the auricle respectively. The nomenclature and descriptions of these structures have been presented inconsistently in the literature. There is also concern that placement of platysma suspension sutures into these structures may risk damage to the underlying facial nerve trunk. Read More
    The retaining ligaments of the cheek.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 1989 Jan;83(1):11-6
    Division of Plastic Surgery, University of California, Irvine.
    The zygomatic ligaments (McGregor's patch) anchor the skin of the cheek to the inferior border of the zygoma just posterior to the origin of the zygomaticus minor muscle. The mandibular ligaments tether the overlying skin to the anterior mandible. Both these ligaments are obstacles to surgical maneuvers intended to advance the overlying skin. Read More
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    Department of Plastic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.
    Background: The transition zone between cheek superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and malar SMAS is difficult to raise because of proximity of zygomatic nerve branches. The authors attempted to clarify the three-dimensional anatomy of the retaining ligaments in relation to nerve branches in this area.

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    Characterization of the Cervical Retaining Ligaments During Subplatysmal Facelift Dissection and its Implications.
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    Assistant Professor of Facial Plastic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
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