J Cell Biochem 2018 02 23;119(2):1257-1272. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known as one of important common endocrine disorders which could due to deregulation of a variety of cellular and molecular pathways. A large numbers studies indicated that various pathogenesis events including mutation, serin phosphorylation, and increasing/decreasing expression of many genes could contribute to initiation and progression of DM. Insulin resistance is one of important factors which could play critical roles in DM pathogenesis. It has been showed that insulin resistance via targeting a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways (eg, PI3 kinases, PPARγ co-activator-1, microRNAs, serine/threonine kinase Akt, and serin phosphorylation) could induce DM. Among of various factors involved in DM pathogenesis, microRNAs, and exosomes have been emerged as effective factors in initiation and progression of DM. A variety of studies indicated that deregulation of these molecules could change behavior of various types of cells and contribute to progression of DM. Resistin is other main factor which is known as signal molecule involved in insulin resistance. Multiple lines evidence indicated that resistin exerts its effects via affecting on glucose metabolism, inhibition of fatty acid uptake and metabolism with affecting on a variety of targets such as CD36, fatty acid transport protein 1, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Here, we summarized various molecular aspects are associated with DM particularly the molecular pathways involved in insulin resistance and resistin in DM. Moreover, we highlighted exosomes and microRNAs as effective players in initiation and progression of DM.