Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts.

Authors:
Prof Sisira Siribaddana, MBBS, MD, FCCP, FRCP Edin FRCP Lon
Prof Sisira Siribaddana, MBBS, MD, FCCP, FRCP Edin FRCP Lon
Faculty of Medicine & Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka
Prof
Health
Anuradhapura | Sri Lanka
Karri Silventoinen Aline Jelenkovic Reijo Sund Yoshie Yokoyama Yoon-Mi Hur Wendy Cozen Amie E Hwang Thomas M Mack Chika Honda Fujio Inui Yoshinori Iwatani Mikio Watanabe Rie Tomizawa Kirsi H Pietiläinen Aila Rissanen Sisira H Siribaddana Matthew Hotopf Athula Sumathipala Fruhling Rijsdijk Qihua Tan Dongfeng Zhang Zengchang Pang Maarit Piirtola Sari Aaltonen Sevgi Y Öncel Fazil Aliev Esther Rebato Jacob B Hjelmborg Kaare Christensen Axel Skytthe Kirsten O Kyvik Judy L Silberg Lindon J Eaves Tessa L Cutler Juan R Ordoñana Juan F Sánchez-Romera Lucia Colodro-Conde Yun-Mi Song Sarah Yang Kayoung Lee Carol E Franz William S Kremen Michael J Lyons Andreas Busjahn Tracy L Nelson Keith E Whitfield Christian Kandler Kerry L Jang Margaret Gatz David A Butler Maria A Stazi Corrado Fagnani Cristina D'Ippolito Glen E Duncan Dedra Buchwald Nicholas G Martin Sarah E Medland Grant W Montgomery Hoe-Uk Jeong Gary E Swan Ruth Krasnow Patrik Ke Magnusson Nancy L Pedersen Anna K Dahl Aslan Tom A McAdams Thalia C Eley Alice M Gregory Per Tynelius Laura A Baker Catherine Tuvblad Gombojav Bayasgalan Danshiitsoodol Narandalai Timothy D Spector Massimo Mangino Genevieve Lachance S Alexandra Burt Kelly L Klump Jennifer R Harris Ingunn Brandt Thomas S Nilsen Robert F Krueger Matt McGue Shandell Pahlen Robin P Corley Brooke M Huibregtse Meike Bartels Catharina Em van Beijsterveldt Gonneke Willemsen Jack H Goldberg Finn Rasmussen Adam D Tarnoki David L Tarnoki Catherine A Derom Robert F Vlietinck Ruth Jf Loos John L Hopper Joohon Sung Hermine H Maes Eric Turkheimer Dorret I Boomsma Thorkild Ia Sørensen Jaakko Kaprio

Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 5;106(2):457-466. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Public Health, and.

Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 20-29 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.153643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525120PMC
August 2017
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