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    Genital angiokeratomas of Fordyce 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser treatment.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Dec 30;19(8):459-464. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    b Department of Dermatology and Venereology , Comenius University , Bratislava , Slovak Republic.
    Background: Angiokeratoma of Fordyce (AF) represents dark red or blue-black papules with a scaly surface located on scrotum, labia majora, and penis. Though usually asymptomatic, bleeding after mechanical trauma and sexual intercourse may occur. AF should be differentiated from malignant melanoma, angiosarcoma, and other pigmented lesions. The treatment, usually asked from patients as the result of anxiety and social embarrassment, should be performed in a non-aggressive manner.

    Objectives: To determine the safety and effectiveness of 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser (VPPDL) with a Dynamic Cooling Device (DCD) in the treatment of AF.

    Methods: Twenty-four patients (22 men and two women) aged 40.88 ± 12.48 years with AF were included in the retrospective study. Lesions located on scrotum, labia majora, and penis were treated with 595-nm VPPDL in the intervals of one to three months. Variable spot, fluence, and pulse-width parameters were used with and/or without DCD skin cooling.

    Results: AF were successfully removed in all patients in one to seven (mean ± SD = 3.38 ± 2.16) treatment sessions with no permanent side effects or complications such as dyspigmentations or scarring. Recidives were observed in four patients after 0.5-1 year intervals.

    Conclusions: 595-nm VPPDL with DCD represents an efficient and safe method for the removal of multiple lesions of AF in genital localization.

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    Pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce: A randomized, comparative, observer-blinded study.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2016 7;27(3):270-4. Epub 2015 Oct 7.
    a Department of Dermatology , Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University Hospital , Cairo , Egypt.
    Background: Angiokeratoma of Fordyce is typically asymptomatic, blue-to-red papules with a scaly surface located on the scrotum, shaft of penis or labia majora. They can be treated with some locally destructive treatment modalities such as excision, electrocoagulation, cryotherapy and laser.

    Objectives: To compare the effects of the pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce. Read More
    Treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce with pulsed dye laser.
    Dermatol Surg 2006 Sep;32(9):1147-50
    Department of Dermatology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Angiokeratomas of Fordyce are typically asymptomatic vascular lesions characterized by blue-to-red papules with a scale surface, most often located on the scrotum. Although considered benign, the lesions may bleed, either spontaneously or secondary to rupture, leading to patient anxiety and social embarrassment.

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    Treatment of angiokeratoma of Fordyce with long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser.
    Dermatol Surg 2009 Jan 8;35(1):92-7. Epub 2008 Dec 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Meram Medical Faculty, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.
    Background: Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, blue-to-red papules with a scaly surface located on the scrotum, shaft of penis, labia majora, inner thigh, or lower abdomen. The treatment of angiokeratomas may be necessary if they bleed and lead to patient anxiety.

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    Extensive angiokeratoma circumscriptum - successful treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2016 Jun 8;18(3):134-7. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
    c Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Commenius University , Bratislava , Slovak Republic.
    Angiokeratomas are rare vascular mucocutaneous lesions characterized by small-vessel ectasias in the upper dermis with reactive epidermal changes. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum (AC) is the rarest among the five types in the current classification of angiokeratoma. We present a case of an extensive AC in 19-year-old women with Fitzpatrick skin type I of the left lower extremity, characterized by a significant morphological heterogeneity of the lesions, intermittent bleeding, and negative psychological impact. Read More