Int Dent J 2017 Dec 23;67(6):332-343. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Objective: Dental plaque accumulation and inadequate personal oral hygiene (OH) are known major risk factors of periodontitis. Nevertheless, the magnitude of their effects has not yet been the subject of a meta-analysis.
Material And Methods: The Medline and Scopus databases were searched up to May 2016. Observational studies were eligible if they assessed associations between OH and periodontitis in adult subjects. A multivariate random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the effects of fair/poor OH versus good OH on periodontitis across studies. The associations between oral care habits and periodontitis were also assessed.
Results: A total of 50 studies were eligible; 15 were used for pooling the effect of fair OH versus good OH and poor OH versus good OH on periodontitis, with pooled odds ratios (ORs) of 2.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-2.53] and 5.01 (95% CI: 3.40-7.39), respectively. Eleven studies examined oral care habits measured according to toothbrushing regularity and dental visit frequency; pooled ORs of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.47-0.94) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.47-0.98) were obtained, respectively.
Conclusions: Fair to poor OH increases the risk of periodontitis by two- to five-fold. This risk can be reduced by regular toothbrushing and dental visits.