Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a
    Fungi that Infect Humans.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Jun;5(3)
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

    Similar Publications

    The spectrum of fungi that infects humans.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014 Nov 3;5(1):a019273. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
    Few among the millions of fungal species fulfill four basic conditions necessary to infect humans: high temperature tolerance, ability to invade the human host, lysis and absorption of human tissue, and resistance to the human immune system. In previously healthy individuals, invasive fungal disease is rare because animals' sophisticated immune systems evolved in constant response to fungal challenges. In contrast, fungal diseases occur frequently in immunocompromised patients. Read More
    Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014 Nov 6;5(4). Epub 2014 Nov 6.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Read More
    Crossover fungal pathogens: the biology and pathogenesis of fungi capable of crossing kingdoms to infect plants and humans.
    Fungal Genet Biol 2013 Dec 8;61:146-57. Epub 2013 Sep 8.
    University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address:
    The outbreak of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate has thrust the importance of fungal infections into the public consciousness. The predominant pathogen isolated from clinical specimens, Exserohilum rostratum (teleomorph: Setosphaeria rostrata), is a dematiaceous fungus that infects grasses and rarely humans. This outbreak highlights the potential for fungal pathogens to infect both plants and humans. Read More
    [Fungal pneumonias: do they exist?].
    Pneumologie 2013 Sep 4;67(9):509-12. Epub 2013 Sep 4.
    Labor Limbach, Heidelberg.
    As typical opportunistic pathogens fungi, for example Pneumocystis jirovecii, infect predominantly immunocompromised hosts. There are, however, others, for example Coccidioides immitis and Cryptococcus neoformans, which endanger otherwise healthy people, too. Fungi are not mentioned as causative agents of pneumonias in the german guidelines for community acquired pneumonia. Read More