BMC Genomics 2017 06 8;18(1):455. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
CBMA (Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology) Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.
Background: During must fermentation thousands of volatile aroma compounds are formed, with higher alcohols, acetate esters and ethyl esters being the main aromatic compounds contributing to floral and fruity aromas. The action of yeast, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the must components will build the architecture of the wine flavour and its fermentation bouquet. The objective of the present work was to better understand the molecular and metabolic bases of aroma production during a fermentation process. For such, comparative transcriptomic and metabolic analysis was performed at two time points (5 and 50 g/L of CO released) in fermentations conducted by four yeast strains from different origins and/or technological applications (cachaça, sake, wine, and laboratory), and multivariate factorial analyses were used to rationally identify new targets for improving aroma production.
Results: Results showed that strains from cachaça, sake and wine produced higher amounts of acetate esters, ethyl esters, acids and higher alcohols, in comparison with the laboratory strain. At fermentation time T1 (5 g/L CO released), comparative transcriptomics of the three S. cerevisiae strains from different fermentative environments in comparison with the laboratory yeast S288c, showed an increased expression of genes related with tetracyclic and pentacyclic triterpenes metabolism, involved in sterol synthesis. Sake strain also showed upregulation of genes ADH7 and AAD6, involved in the formation of higher alcohols in the Ehrlich pathway. For fermentation time point T2 (50 g/L CO released), again sake strain, but also VL1 strain, showed an increased expression of genes involved in formation of higher alcohols in the Ehrlich pathway, namely ADH7, ADH6 and AAD6, which is in accordance with the higher levels of methionol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and phenylethanol observed.
Conclusions: Our approach revealed successful to integrate data from several technologies (HPLC, GC-MS, microarrays) and using different data analysis methods (PCA, MFA). The results obtained increased our knowledge on the production of wine aroma and flavour, identifying new gene in association to the formation of flavour active compounds, mainly in the production of fatty acids, and ethyl and acetate esters.