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    Mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder: effects of pharmacotherapy.
    Mini Rev Med Chem 2015 ;15(5):355-65
    School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Australia.
    Bipolar disorder is a common, chronic, and complex mental illness. Bipolar disorder is frequently comorbid with primary mitochondrial and metabolic disorders, and studies have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in its pathophysiology. In the brains of people with bipolar disorder, high-energy phosphates are decreased, lactate is elevated and pH decreased, which together suggest a shift toward glycolysis for energy production. Read More
    Mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders.
    Chang Gung Med J 2009 Jul-Aug;32(4):370-9
    Department of Psychiatry, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan.
    Mitochondria are intracellular organelles crucial in the production of cellular energy. Mitochondrial diseases may result from malfunctions in this biochemical cascade. Several investigators have proposed that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Read More
    Mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders.
    Neurochem Res 2009 Jun 1;34(6):1021-9. Epub 2008 Nov 1.
    Laboratório de Fisiopatologia Experimental, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC, Brazil.
    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the major ATP-producing pathway, which supplies more than 95% of the total energy requirement in the cells. Damage to the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of a range of psychiatric disorders. Tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain, contain a large number of mitochondria, being therefore more susceptible to reduction of the aerobic metabolism. Read More
    Review of the literature on major mental disorders in adult patients with mitochondrial diseases.
    Psychosomatics 2006 Jan-Feb;47(1):1-7
    The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH, USA.
    Mitochondria are intracellular organelles crucial to the production cellular energy. Mitochondrial disease results from a malfunction in this biochemical cascade. These disorders can affect any organ system, producing diverse signs and symptoms, including psychiatric ones. Read More