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    Current Methods for the Treatment of Alveolar Cleft.
    Arch Plast Surg 2017 May 22;44(3):188-193. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Alveolar cleft is a tornado-shaped bone defect in the maxillary arch. The treatment goals for alveolar cleft are stabilization and provision of bone continuity to the maxillary arch, permitting support for tooth eruption, eliminating oronasal fistulas, providing an improved esthetic result, and improving speech. Treatment protocols vary in terms of the operative time, surgical techniques, and graft materials. Early approaches including boneless bone grafting (gingivoperiosteoplasty) and primary bone graft fell into disfavor because they impaired facial growth, and they remain controversial. Secondary bone graft (SBG) is not the most perfect method, but long-term follow-up has shown that the graft is absorbed to a lesser extent, does not impede facial growth, and supports other teeth. Accordingly, SBG in the mixed dentition phase (6-11 years) has become the preferred method of treatment. The most commonly used graft material is cancellous bone from the iliac crest. Recently, many researchers have investigated the use of allogeneic bone, artificial bone, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, along with growth factors because of their ability to decrease donor-site morbidity. Further investigations of bone substitutes and additives will continue to be needed to increase their effectiveness and to reduce complications.

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    Division of Plastic Surgery, Loma Linda University, California 92350, USA.
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    Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, University Hospital Clínic i Provincial, Barcelona University. Barcelona, Spain ; Department of Pediatric Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, University Hospital Sant Joan de Déu. Barcelona University. Barcelona, Spain.
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    Saudi Dent J 2016 Jan 25;28(1):3-11. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
    Maxillofacial Department, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
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    J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2015 Jul 9;43(6):950-5. Epub 2015 Apr 9.
    APHP, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Service de chirurgie maxillo-faciale, F-75015, Paris, France; Centre de référence des malformations de la face et de la cavité buccale, F-75015, Paris, France; Université Paris VI, Faculté de Médecine Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005, Paris, France; Laboratoire de Physiopathologie orale et Moléculaire, INSERM, UMRS 872, Equipe 5, Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, 75006, Paris, France.
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