Leuk Res 2017 08 12;59:47-54. Epub 2017 May 12.
Medical Clinic III for Oncology, Haematology, Immunology and Rheumatology, University Hospital Bonn (UKB), Germany.
Vascular adverse events (VAE) are an emerging problem in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Relevant VAE comprise peripheral, cerebral, and coronary artery changes in patients receiving nilotinib, venous and arterial occlusive events during ponatinib therapy, and pulmonary hypertension in patients receiving dasatinib. Although each TKI binds to a unique profile of molecular targets in leukemic cells and vascular cells, the exact etiology of drug-induced vasculopathies remains uncertain. Recent data suggest that predisposing molecular factors, pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors as well as certain comorbidities contribute to the etiology of VAE in these patients. In addition, direct effects of these TKI on vascular endothelial cells have been demonstrated and are considered to contribute essentially to VAE evolution. In the current article, we discuss mechanisms underlying the occurrence of VAE in TKI-treated patients with CML, with special emphasis on vascular and perivascular target cells and involved molecular (vascular) targets of VAE-triggering TKI. In addition, we discuss optimal patient selection and drug selection through which the risk of occurrence of cardiovascular events can hopefully be minimized while maintaining optimal anti-leukemic effects in CML, thereby following the principles of personalized medicine.