Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015.

Authors:
Gregory A Roth Catherine Johnson Amanuel Abajobir Foad Abd-Allah Semaw Ferede Abera Gebre Abyu Muktar Ahmed Baran Aksut Tahiya Alam Khurshid Alam François Alla Nelson Alvis-Guzman Stephen Amrock Hossein Ansari Johan Ärnlöv Hamid Asayesh Tesfay Mehari Atey Leticia Avila-Burgos Ashish Awasthi Amitava Banerjee Aleksandra Barac Till Bärnighausen Lars Barregard Neeraj Bedi Ezra Belay Ketema Derrick Bennett Gebremedhin Berhe Zulfiqar Bhutta Shimelash Bitew Jonathan Carapetis Juan Jesus Carrero Deborah Carvalho Malta Carlos Andres Castañeda-Orjuela Jacqueline Castillo-Rivas Ferrán Catalá-López Jee-Young Choi Hanne Christensen Massimo Cirillo Leslie Cooper Michael Criqui David Cundiff Albertino Damasceno Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Kairat Davletov Samath Dharmaratne Prabhakaran Dorairaj Manisha Dubey Rebecca Ehrenkranz Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Emerito Jose A Faraon Alireza Esteghamati Talha Farid Maryam Farvid Valery Feigin Eric L Ding Gerry Fowkes Tsegaye Gebrehiwot Richard Gillum Audra Gold Philimon Gona Rajeev Gupta Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold Nima Hafezi-Nejad Tesfaye Hailu Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Graeme Hankey Hamid Yimam Hassen Kalkidan Hassen Abate Rasmus Havmoeller Simon I Hay Masako Horino Peter J Hotez Kathryn Jacobsen Spencer James Mehdi Javanbakht Panniyammakal Jeemon Denny John Jost Jonas Yogeshwar Kalkonde Chante Karimkhani Amir Kasaeian Yousef Khader Abdur Khan Young-Ho Khang Sahil Khera Abdullah T Khoja Jagdish Khubchandani Daniel Kim Dhaval Kolte Soewarta Kosen Kristopher J Krohn G Anil Kumar Gene F Kwan Dharmesh Kumar Lal Anders Larsson Shai Linn Alan Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Mohsen Mazidi Toni Meier Kidanu Gebremariam Meles George Mensah Atte Meretoja Haftay Mezgebe Ted Miller Erkin Mirrakhimov Shafiu Mohammed Andrew E Moran Kamarul Imran Musa Jagat Narula Bruce Neal Frida Ngalesoni Grant Nguyen Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer Mayowa Owolabi George Patton João Pedro Dima Qato Mostafa Qorbani Kazem Rahimi Rajesh Kumar Rai Salman Rawaf Antônio Ribeiro Saeid Safiri Joshua A Salomon Itamar Santos Milena Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Aletta Schutte Sadaf Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Min-Jeong Shin Mehdi Shishehbor Hirbo Shore Diego Augusto Santos Silva Eugene Sobngwi Saverio Stranges Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Niguse Tadele Atnafu Fisaha Tesfay J S Thakur Amanda Thrift Roman Topor-Madry Thomas Truelsen Stefanos Tyrovolas Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Olalekan Uthman Tommi Vasankari Vasiliy Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Tolassa Wakayo David Watkins Robert Weintraub Andrea Werdecker Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Charles Wolfe Abdulhalik Workicho Gelin Xu Yuichiro Yano Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Younis Chuanhua Yu Theo Vos Mohsen Naghavi Christopher Murray

J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Jul 17;70(1):1-25. Epub 2017 May 17.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world.

Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden.

Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility.

Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75.

Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491406PMC
July 2017
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