Vitamin D receptor activation reduces inflammatory cytokines and plasma MicroRNAs in moderate chronic kidney disease - a randomized trial.

BMC Nephrol 2017 May 16;18(1):161. Epub 2017 May 16.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), partly due to endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. Vitamin D treatment in end stage renal disease is suggested to modulate the immune system and lead to improved outcomes. We and others have demonstrated that treatment with vitamin D or activated vitamin D analogues protects the endothelial function in less severe renal disease as well. Since the endothelial protection might be mediated by vitamin D effects on inflammation, we assessed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and micro RNAs (miRs) in patients with moderate CKD, treated with an active vitamin D analogue (paricalcitol).

Methods: Thirty-six patients with moderate CKD were randomized to 12 weeks treatment with placebo, 1 μg, or 2 μg paricalcitol daily. Cytokines were measured by Milliplex 26-plex. Total RNA was isolated from plasma and miRs were determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis.

Results: Selected pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased significantly following treatment, while no change was observed in the placebo group. The micro RNAs; miR 432-5p, miR 495-3p, and miR 576-5p were significantly downregulated in the active treated groups, compared to the placebo group.

Conclusion: Paricalcitol treatment for 12 weeks in patients with moderate CKD reduces cytokines and micro RNAs involved in atherosclerosis and inflammation. The potentially protective role of vitamin D receptor activation in the inflammatory processes regarding the long-term outcomes in CKD patients warrants further studies.

Trial Registration: SOLID study; NCT01204528 , April 27, 2010.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0576-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434555PMC
May 2017
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