Vitamin-D concentrations, cardiovascular risk and events - a review of epidemiological evidence.

Authors:
Winfried Marz
Winfried Marz
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics
Austria
Stefan Pilz
Stefan Pilz
Medical University of Graz
Austria
Tanja B Grammer
Tanja B Grammer
University of Birmingham
United Kingdom
Christian Trummer
Christian Trummer
Medical University Graz
Austria
Verena Schwetz
Verena Schwetz
Medical University of Graz
Austria
Marlene Pandis
Marlene Pandis
Medical University of Graz

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 06;18(2):259-272

Department of Medicine, Surgery Odontoiatrics-Scuola Medica Salernitana, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

Vitamin D has long been established as an elemental factor of bone physiology. Beyond mineral metabolism, the expression of the vitamin D receptor has been identified throughout the cardiovascular (CV) system. Experimental studies showed beneficial effects of vitamin D on heart and vessels, but vitamin D intoxication in animals also led to hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Our knowledge has been extended by epidemiological studies that showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are inversely associated with an increased CV risk itself, but also with established CV risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Conversely, randomized controlled trials could not document significant and consistent effects of vitamin D supplementation on CV risk or events. Potential explanations may lie in differences in reference ranges or the possibility that low vitamin D in CV disease is only an epiphenomenon. In the latter case, the key question is why low 25(OH)D levels are such a strong predictor of health. While we wait for new data, the current conclusion is that vitamin D is a strong risk marker for CV risk factors and for CV diseases itself.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11154-017-9417-0DOI Listing
June 2017
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