Radiology 2017 09 18;284(3):656-666. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
From the Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, Republic of Korea.
Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance and tissue changes in early (1 year or less) breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging surveillance in women who underwent breast conservation therapy for breast cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Between April 2014 and June 2016, 414 women (mean age, 51.5 years; range, 21-81 years) who underwent 422 early surveillance breast MR imaging examinations (median, 6.0 months; range, 2-12 months) after breast conservation therapy were studied. The cancer detection rate, positive predictive value of biopsy, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve of surveillance MR imaging, mammography, and ultrasonography (US) were assessed. Follow-up was also obtained in 95 women by using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) changes in the contralateral breast were assessed according to adjuvant therapy by using the McNemar test. Results Of 11 detected cancers, six were seen at MR imaging only, one was seen at MR imaging and mammography, two were seen at MR imaging and US, one was seen at mammography only, and one was seen at PET/CT only. Three MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed at the original tumor bed, and two MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed adjacent to the original tumor. Among two false-negative MR imaging diagnoses (two cases of ductal carcinoma in situ), one cancer had manifested as calcifications at mammography without differentiated enhancement at MR imaging, and the other cancer was detected at PET/CT, but MR imaging results were negative because of marked BPE, which resulted in focal lesion masking. The positive predictive value of biopsy and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve for MR imaging were 32.1% (nine of 28), 81.8% (nine of 11), 95.1% (391 of 411), 94.7% (400 of 422), and 0.88, respectively. The sensitivity of surveillance MR imaging (81.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 48.2%, 97.7%) was higher than that of mammography (18.2%; 95% CI: 2.3%, 51.8%) and US (18.2%; 95% CI: 2.3%, 51.8%), with an overlap in CIs. The BPE showed a significant decrease in the group of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (43 BPE decreases and four BPE increases) and the group of patients who received hormone therapy (55 BPE decreases and two BPE increases) (P < .0001 for both). Conclusion Early MR imaging surveillance after breast conservation therapy can be useful in patients who have breast cancer, with superior sensitivity compared with that of mammography and US. The BPE tends to be decreased at short-term follow-up MR imaging in patients who receive adjuvant therapy. RSNA, 2017.