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    Recurrent Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment: a case report and review of the literature.

    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Apr 14;16(1):31. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    MTA-SZTE "Lendület" Fungal Pathogenicity Mechanisms Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.
    Background: Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation.

    Case Report: We report the case of a 70-year-old immunocompromised man, who developed a fungal mycetomatous infection on his right leg. There was no history of trauma; the aetiological agent was identified by microscopic examination and ITS sequencing. This is the second reported case of S. apiospermum subcutaneous infections in Hungary, which was successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment. After 7 months, the patient remained asymptomatic. Considering the antifungal susceptibility and increasing incidence of the fungus, Scedosporium related subcutaneous infections reported in the past quarter of century in European countries were also reviewed.

    Conclusions: Corticosteroid treatment represents a serious risk factor of S. apiospermum infections, especially if the patient get in touch with manure-enriched or polluted soil or water. Such infections have emerged several times in European countries in the past decades. The presented data suggest that besides the commonly applied voriconazole, terbinafine may be an alternative for the therapy of mycetomatous Scedosporium infections.
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