Expanding Genetic and Functional Diagnoses of IGF1R Haploinsufficiencies.

Horm Res Paediatr 2017 10;87(6):412-422. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Cincinnati Center for Growth Disorders, Division of Endocrinology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: The growth-promoting effects of IGF-I is mediated through the IGF-I receptor (IGF1R), a widely expressed cell-surface tyrosine kinase receptor. IGF1R copy number variants (CNV) can cause pre- and postnatal growth restriction or overgrowth.

Methods: Whole exome sequence (WES), chromosomal microarray, and targeted IGF1R gene analyses were performed on 3 unrelated children who share features of small for gestational age, short stature, and elevated serum IGF-I, but otherwise had clinical heterogeneity. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of cell-surface IGF1R was performed on live primary cells derived from the patients.

Results: Two novel IGF1R CNV and a heterozygous IGF1R nonsense variant were identified in the 3 patients. One CNV (4.492 Mb) was successfully called from WES, utilizing eXome-Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) analysis. FACS analysis of cell-surface IGF1R on live primary cells derived from the patients demonstrated a ∼50% reduction in IGF1R availability associated with the haploinsufficiency state.

Conclusion: In addition to conventional methods, IGF1R CNV can be identified from WES data. FACS analysis of live primary cells is a promising method for efficiently evaluating and screening for IGF1R haploinsufficiency. Further investigations are necessary to delineate how comparable IGF1R availability leads to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes and variable responsiveness to rhGH therapy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000464143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509495PMC
April 2018
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