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    Cytokine polymorphisms are associated with daytime napping in adults living with HIV.
    Sleep Med 2017 Apr 20;32:162-170. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Objective/background: Daytime napping longer than one hour has been associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality. Associations between cytokine polymorphisms and daytime napping in chronic illnesses such as HIV, however, have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to examine cytokine polymorphisms associated with long daytime napping in adults living with HIV.

    Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using a convenience sample of 257 adults living with HIV. Daytime napping was assessed with wrist actigraphy data collected over three days. Participants categorized as long nappers (≥60 min) were compared to short nappers and non-nappers (<60 min). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling were analyzed. Genes included: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1B, IL1R, IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factors of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA).

    Results: After adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics, long daytime napping was associated with 12 SNPs from seven genes: 1) IFNG rs2069728; 2) IL1B rs1143642, rs1143627, and rs16944; 3) IL2 rs2069763; 4) IL6 rs4719714, rs1554606, and rs2069845; 5) IL17A rs3819024 and rs8193036; 6) NFKB1 rs4648110; and 7) NFKB2 rs1056890.

    Conclusions: Cytokine genetic variations may have a role in physiological regulation of daytime napping as well as nocturnal sleep. Cytokine polymorphisms associated with long daytime napping could help identify adults with HIV who may benefit from targeted therapeutic interventions.

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