Arch Plast Surg 2017 Mar 15;44(2):101-108. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
Department of Radiodiagnosis, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
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Eur J Morphol 2002 Jul;40(3):181-9
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Wilhelminenspital Vienna, Austria.
The exact location of the main nerves and vessels to the breast and the nipple-areola complex has always been obscure. We found that the course of the rich neurovascular supply to the nipple runs along a regularly-located, suspensory apparatus and can therefore be predicted exactly. It consists of a horizontal fibrous septum originating at the pectoral fascia along the 5th rib, merging into vertical ligaments along the sternum medially and along the lateral border of pectoralis minor laterally. Read More
Plast Reconstr Surg 2010 Sep;126(3):786-93
Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Bellville, South Africa.
Background: Nipple necrosis, a potential postoperative complication of breast surgery procedures, should be avoided. Because of the great variation in the blood supply to the nipple, it is advisable to include as many arteries in the pedicle as possible. According to the literature, the perforators of the internal thoracic artery are the most constant and reliable sources of blood to the nipple-areola complex. Read More
Plast Reconstr Surg 1998 May;101(6):1486-93
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria.
Anatomical findings from 28 breast specimens of female corpses have shown a thin horizontal fibrous septum, originating from the pectoral fascia along the level of the fifth rib, heading toward the nipple. This fibrous septum lies in between a cranial and a caudal vascular network, and being mesentery-like, it is responsible for the supply of the nipple areola complex. The cranial vascular sheet is supplied by the thoracoacromial artery and a branch of the lateral thoracic artery, whereas the caudal sheet is supplied by perforating branches from anastomoses of intercostal arteries. Read More
Plast Reconstr Surg 2002 Jun;109(7):2283-8
Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
The preservation of sensitivity within the nipple-areola complex is of paramount importance to patients presenting for reconstructive and aesthetic breast procedures. Previous attempts to measure sensation in the breast before and after surgery have relied primarily on the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, which is an imprecise study that measures the logarithm of force necessary to bend a series of six to 20 filaments. Within the last 10 years, various authors have published normative pressure threshold data for the breast that have varied by a magnitude of greater than 10-fold. Read More