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    Identification of residues important for the activity of aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase through investigation into the structure-activity relationship.
    BMC Biotechnol 2017 Mar 16;17(1):31. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266101, China.
    Background: Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of fatty alk(a/e)nes in cyanobacteria. However, cADO (cyanobacterial ADO) showed extreme low activity with the k cat value below 1 min(-1), which would limit its application in biofuel production. To identify the activity related key residues of cADO is urgently required.

    Results: The amino acid residues which might affect cADO activity were identified based on the crystal structures and sequence alignment of cADOs, including the residues close to the di-iron center (Tyr39, Arg62, Gln110, Tyr122, Asp143 of cADO-1593), the protein surface (Trp 178 of cADO-1593), and those involved in two important hydrogen bonds (Gln49, Asn123 of cADO-1593, and Asp49, Asn123 of cADO-sll0208) and in the oligopeptide whose conformation changed in the absence of the di-iron center (Leu146, Asn149, Phe150 of cADO-1593, and Thr146, Leu148, Tyr150 of cADO-sll0208). The variants of cADO-1593 from Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and cADO-sll0208 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 were constructed, overexpressed, purified and kinetically characterized. The k cat values of L146T, Q49H/N123H/F150Y and W178R of cADO-1593 and L148R of cADO-sll0208 were increased by more than two-fold, whereas that of R62A dropped by 91.1%. N123H, Y39F and D143A of cADO-1593, and Y150F of cADO-sll0208 reduced activities by ≤ 20%.

    Conclusions: Some important amino acids, which exerted some effects on cADO activity, were identified. Several enzyme variants exhibited greatly reduced activity, while the k cat values of several mutants are more than two-fold higher than the wild type. This study presents the report on the relationship between amino acid residues and enzyme activity of cADOs, and the information will provide a guide for enhancement of cADO activity through protein engineering.

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    Biotechnol Biofuels 2016 31;9(1):185. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao, 266101 China.
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    Protein Cell 2015 Jan 9;6(1):55-67. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
    National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
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    Division of Polar Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Republic of Korea; Department of Polar Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Incheon 21990, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
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    Department of Chemistry, ‡Life Sciences Institute, and §Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.
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