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    Identification of two transcription factors activating the expression of OsXIP in rice defence response.
    BMC Biotechnol 2017 Mar 7;17(1):26. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
    Background: Xylanase inhibitors have been confirmed to be involved in plant defence. OsXIP is a XIP-type rice xylanase inhibitor, yet its transcriptional regulation remains unknown.

    Results: Herbivore infestation, wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment enhanced mRNA levels and protein levels of OsXIP. By analyzing different 5' deletion mutants of OsXIP promoter exposed to rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens stress, a 562 bp region (-1451 - -889) was finally identified as the key sequence for the herbivores stress response. Using yeast one-hybrid screening, coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, a basic helix-loop-helix protein (OsbHLH59) and an APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor OsERF71 directly binding to the 562 bp key sequence to activate the expression of OsXIP were identified, which is further supported by transient expression assay. Moreover, transcriptional analysis revealed that mechanical wounding and treatment with MeJA resulted in an obvious increase in transcript levels of OsbHLH59 and OsERF71 in root and shoot tissues.

    Conclusions: Our data shows that two proteins as direct transcriptional activators of OsXIP responding to stress were identified. These results reveal a coordinated regulatory mechanism of OsXIP, which may probably be involved in defence responses via a JA-mediated signaling pathway.

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