Attentional impairments in Huntington's disease: A specific deficit for the executive conflict.

Authors:
Pierre Maurage
Pierre Maurage
Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology
Alexandre Heeren
Alexandre Heeren
Université Catholique de Louvain
Belgium
Magali Lahaye
Magali Lahaye
Psychological Sciences Research Institute
Anne Jeanjean
Anne Jeanjean
Université Catholique de Louvain
Lamia Guettat
Lamia Guettat
Beau-Vallon Hospital
Saint-Servais | Belgium
Christine Verellen-Dumoulin
Christine Verellen-Dumoulin
Université Catholique de Louvain
Belgium
Joel Billieux
Joel Billieux
Geneva University Hospitals
Switzerland

Neuropsychology 2017 May 27;31(4):424-436. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Saint-Luc University Hospital.

Objective: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined attentional tasks, uncertainty still abounds regarding the differential deficit across attentional subcomponents. Likewise, the evolution of these deficits during the successive stages of HD remains unclear. The present study simultaneously explored 3 distinct networks of attention (alerting, orienting, executive conflict) in preclinical and clinical HD.

Method: Thirty-eight HD patients (18 preclinical) and 38 matched healthy controls completed the attention network test, an integrated and theoretically grounded task assessing the integrity of 3 attentional networks.

Results: Preclinical HD was not characterized by any attentional deficit compared to controls. Conversely, clinical HD was associated with a differential deficit across the 3 attentional networks under investigation, showing preserved performance for alerting and orienting networks but massive and specific impairment for the executive conflict network. This indexes an impaired use of executive control to resolve the conflict between task-relevant stimuli and interfering task-irrelevant ones.

Conclusion: Clinical HD does not lead to a global attentional deficit but rather to a specific impairment for the executive control of attention. Moreover, the absence of attentional deficits in preclinical HD suggests that these deficits are absent at the initial stages of the disease. In view of their impact on everyday life, attentional deficits should be considered in clinical contexts. Therapeutic programs improving the executive control of attention by neuropsychology and neuromodulation should be promoted. (PsycINFO Database Record

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000321DOI Listing
May 2017
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