Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 02 7;12(1):24. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
Genetics and Genomic Medicine, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK.
Background: We describe molecular diagnosis in a complex consanguineous family: four offspring presented with combinations of three distinctive phenotypes; non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL), an unusual skeletal phenotype comprising multiple fractures, cranial abnormalities and diaphyseal expansion, and significant developmental delay with microcephaly. We performed Chromosomal Microarray Analysis on the offspring with either the skeletal or developmental delay phenotypes, and linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing (WES) on all four children, parents and maternal aunt.
Results: Chromosomal microarray and FISH analysis identified a de novo unbalanced translocation as a cause of the microcephaly and severe developmental delay. WES identified a NSHL-causing splice variant in an autosomal recessive deafness gene PDZD7 which resided in a linkage region and affected three of the children. In the two children diagnosed with an unusual skeletal phenotype, WES eventually disclosed a heterozygous COL1A1 variant which affects C-propetide cleavage site of COL1. The variant was inherited from an apparently unaffected mosaic father in an autosomal dominant fashion. After the discovery of the COL1A1 variant, the skeletal phenotype was diagnosed as a high bone mass form of osteogenesis imperfecta.
Conclusions: Next generation sequencing offers an unbiased approach to molecular genetic diagnosis in highly heterogeneous and poorly characterised disorders and enables early diagnosis as well as detection of mosaicism.