How anthropogenic changes may affect soil-borne parasite diversity? Plant-parasitic nematode communities associated with olive trees in Morocco as a case study.

Authors:
Nadine Ali
Nadine Ali
IRD
France
Guillaume Besnard
Guillaume Besnard
University of Lausanne
Switzerland
Bouchaib Khadari
Bouchaib Khadari
Imperial College London
United Kingdom
Ewa Dmowska
Ewa Dmowska
Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS
Warszawa | Poland
Mohammed Ater
Mohammed Ater
Biotechnology Research Institute
Canada

BMC Ecol 2017 02 6;17(1). Epub 2017 Feb 6.

IRD, UMR CBGP, 755 Avenue du Campus Agropolis, CS30016, 34988, Montferrier-sur-Lez Cedex, France.

Background: Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are major crop pests. On olive (Olea europaea), they significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive producing countries in the world especially in nurseries and under cropping intensification. The diversity and the structure of PPN communities respond to environmental and anthropogenic forces. The olive tree is a good host plant model to understand the impact of such forces on PPN diversity since it grows according to different modalities (wild, feral and cultivated olives). A wide soil survey was conducted in several olive-growing regions in Morocco. The taxonomical and the functional diversity as well as the structures of PPN communities were described and then compared between non-cultivated (wild and feral forms) and cultivated (traditional and high-density olive cultivation) olives.

Results: A high diversity of PPN with the detection of 117 species and 47 genera was revealed. Some taxa were recorded for the first time on olive trees worldwide and new species were also identified. Anthropogenic factors (wild vs cultivated conditions) strongly impacted the PPN diversity and the functional composition of communities because the species richness, the local diversity and the evenness of communities significantly decreased and the abundance of nematodes significantly increased in high-density conditions. Furthermore, these conditions exhibited many more obligate and colonizer PPN and less persister PPN compared to non-cultivated conditions. Taxonomical structures of communities were also impacted: genera such as Xiphinema spp. and Heterodera spp. were dominant in wild olive, whereas harmful taxa such as Meloidogyne spp. were especially enhanced in high-density orchards.

Conclusions: Olive anthropogenic practices reduce the PPN diversity in communities and lead to changes of the community structures with the development of some damaging nematodes. The study underlined the PPN diversity as a relevant indicator to assess community pathogenicity. That could be taken into account in order to design control strategies based on community rearrangements and interactions between species instead of reducing the most pathogenic species.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-016-0113-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294739PMC

Still can't find the full text of the article?

Sign up to send a request to the authors directly.
February 2017
14 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

ppn diversity
16
ppn
10
ppn communities
8
olive trees
8
wild feral
8
compared non-cultivated
8
diversity
8
olive
8
communities
7
species
5
diversity functional
4
functional composition
4
impacted ppn
4
wild cultivated
4
anthropogenic factors
4
identified anthropogenic
4
factors wild
4
conditions
4
cultivated conditions
4
conditions impacted
4

References

(Supplied by CrossRef)
Article in Nature
FS Chapin III et al.
Nature 2000
Article in Ecol Monogr
DU Hooper et al.
Ecol Monogr 2005
Article in Biodivers Conserv
PS Giller et al.
Biodivers Conserv 1996
Article in Ecol Indic
D Vackár et al.
Ecol Indic 2012
Article in Ecology
MB Postma-Blaauw et al.
Ecology 2010
Article in Appl Soil Ecol
MB Postma-Blaauw et al.
Appl Soil Ecol 2012
Article in J Nematol
S Pen-Mouratov et al.
J Nematol 2003
Article in J Nematol
GW Yeates et al.
J Nematol 1993
Article in Trends Ecol Evol
T Bongers et al.
Trends Ecol Evol 1999
Article in Phytoma
C Djian-Caporalino et al.
Phytoma 2009

Similar Publications