Iran J Med Sci 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S74
Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Background: The science of toxicology has a long history and been highly valued in Islamic countries. Numerous scientists were the expert in this field, particularly during the third and fourth centuries. Through reading such literature and gaining the experience of the scientists, one can use such valuable information to promote this science.
Methods: In this article, different sources of traditional medicine from the first to the fourteenth century were evaluated.
Results: The first toxicologist during the Islamic era was Ibn Uthal. Jāber ibn Hayyān offered interesting ideas about the pharmacokinetics of toxins. Ibn Wahshia, along with translating books, described his personal experiences in a book called Al-Somum va al-Tary aghat. The most important bites, poisons, and related treatments were specifically viewed by Rhazi. Then, Ibn Sīnā explained different aspects of poisons, including their identity and constituents, diagnoses of poison types, methods of detoxification, and treatment of poisoning. Jorjāni suggested some drugs for poisoning prevention. He recommended these drugs to be consumed before an individual enters a place that has poisoning potential. An important achievement of Imad al-Din is the innovation of new methods for detoxification of some poisons. Aghili described the symptoms of poisoning and special methods of detoxification by which toxicity is greatly reduced. Finally, Abdolhossein Zonouzi Tabrizi in Marefat-al-Somum mentioned the identification of natural and synthetic poisons. In fact, this book is a bridge between the traditional and modern toxicology.
Conclusion: It seems that the study of these manuscripts would provide valuable clinical experiences from medieval Islamic toxicologists on different types of poisoning. Therefore, it helps to gain new ideas for the prevention and treatment of poisoning.