Urol Oncol 2016 12 20;34(12):566-576. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
Departments of Oncology and Urology at Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:
Tremendous advances in our understanding of the tumor immunology and molecular biology of urothelial carcinoma (UC) have led to the recent approval of immunotherapy as a novel option for patients with UC with advanced disease. Despite the promising data of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, only a small subset of patients with UC achieves durable remissions. Because an optimal antitumor response requires coordination of multiple immune, tumor, and microenvironment effector cells, novel approaches targeting distinct mechanisms of action likely in combination are needed. In addition, discovery of reliable immune biomarkers, understanding of mechanisms of resistance, and novel clinical trial designs are warranted for maximum benefit of UC immunotherapy.