Laryngoscope 2017 06 18;127(6):1288-1295. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Nerve Center Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.
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Ann Plast Surg 2014 Jan;72(1):71-4
From the *Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Chiba University, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba; Departments of †Anatomy and ‡Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Showa University, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Read More
HNO 1996 Oct;44(10):572-6
Klinik und Poliklinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenkrankheiten, Universität Göttingen.
The available descriptions of the innervation of the depressor anguli oris muscle and the peripheral distribution of the terminal branches of the marginal mandibular branch and buccal branches of the facial nerve are conflicting. Based upon dissections of 25 head halves we investigated the courses of the terminal branches of the marginal mandibular and buccal nerves. The marginal mandibular and buccal branches were found to form in the area of the mental foramen the mental and buccal plexus innervating the mimetic muscles by terminal nerve branches in the cheek area. Read More
Surg Radiol Anat 2013 Apr 29;35(3):259-62. Epub 2012 Sep 29.
Department of Maxillo-facial and Plastic Surgery, CHU Caen, Avenue de la Côte de Nacre, 14033, Caen Cedex, France.
Purpose: Direct access to the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve in the parotid is less invasive and more selective than first dissecting the nerve trunk and then finding the branches. The aim of this study was to confirm the point of reference on the skin which would give direct access to the zygomatic branch for the orbicularis oculi muscle. The skin reference point studied was on the intertragic notch/external canthus line, 2. Read More
J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2001 Feb;59(2):178-84
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0440, USA.
Purpose: This study identified the terminal temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve as they enter the orbicularis oculi muscle and related these branches to identifiable surface markings.
Materials And Methods: The temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve were dissected from 5 preserved cadavers (10 sides). The most superior temporal branch entering the orbicularis oculi muscle was identified and related to the lateral canthus of the eye. Read More