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    Differential diagnosis of herpetiform vesicles by a non-invasive, molecular method using crusts or blister roofs: Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio.
    J Dermatol Sci 2016 Dec 3;84(3):358-359. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 700-8558, Okayama, Japan. Electronic address:

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    Detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster infection from cutaneous lesions in different clinical stages with the polymerase chain reaction.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 1995 May;32(5 Pt 1):730-3
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, MO 63104, USA.
    Background: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to diagnose a variety of infectious processes.

    Objective: We sought to determine whether Tzanck smear debris, vesicle fluid swabs, crusts, or fixed tissue specimens are the best source for template herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA for the PCR.

    Methods: Patients with both clinical and histologic evidence of HSV (n = 6) or VZV (n = 16) infection were examined. Read More
    Comparison of the Tzanck test and polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus infections.
    Int J Dermatol 2007 Nov;46(11):1177-9
    Department of Dermatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey.
    Background: Although the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections is usually made clinically, the Tzanck test, electron microscopy, viral culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serologic tests can be utilized to verify the diagnosis.

    Methods: We conducted a study on a total of 98 patients (77 patients with recurrent herpes simplex and 21 patients with herpes zoster) to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of the Tzanck test in comparison with PCR.

    Results: In herpes virus infections, the general positivity rates of the Tzanck test and PCR were 61. Read More
    Dermal hypersensitivity reaction: a PCR-confirmed pattern of herpetic dermatitis.
    J Cutan Pathol 2012 Oct 9;39(10):929-35. Epub 2012 Aug 9.
    Department of Pathology, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston, IL, USA.
    Background: Herpetic dermatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) can present with similar clinical and histopathologic features. Further confounding matters, viral cytopathic changes are not always observed in biopsy specimens. Therefore, use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis can play an integral role in the definitive diagnosis of herpetic dermatitis and in the distinction of HSV-1/HSV-2 from VZV. Read More