PLoS One 2016 7;11(10):e0164499. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
Department of Medicine A, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.
Nintedanib (BIBF 1120), a potent multikinase inhibitor of VEGFR-1/-2/-3, FGFR-1/-2/-3 and PDGFR-α/-β, exerts growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects in myeloid leukemic cells, especially when used in combination with cytarabine. This phase I study evaluated nintedanib in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in elderly patients with untreated or relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ineligible for intensive chemotherapy in a 3+3 design. Nintedanib (dose levels 100, 150, and 200 mg orally twice daily) and LDAC (20 mg subcutaneous injection twice daily for 10 days) were administered in 28-day cycles. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as non-hematological severe adverse reaction CTC grade ≥ 4 with possible or definite relationship to nintedanib. Between April 2012 and October 2013, 13 patients (median age 73 [range: 62-86] years) were enrolled. One patient did not receive study medication and was replaced. Nine (69%) patients had relapsed or refractory disease and 6 (46%) patients had unfavorable cytogenetics. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse events (AE) were gastrointestinal events. Twelve SAEs irrespective of relatedness were reported. Two SUSARs were observed, one fatal hypercalcemia and one fatal gastrointestinal infection. Two patients (17%) with relapsed AML achieved a complete remission (one CR, one CRi) and bone marrow blast reductions without fulfilling PR criteria were observed in 3 patients (25%). One-year overall survival was 33%. Nintedanib combined with LDAC shows an adequate safety profile and survival data are promising in a difficult-to-treat patient population. Continuation of this trial with a phase II recommended dose of 2 x 200 mg nintedanib in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study is planned. The trial is registered to EudraCT as 2011-001086-41.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01488344.