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    The future development of bacteria fighting medical devices: the role of graphene oxide.
    Expert Rev Med Devices 2016 Nov;13(11):1013-1019
    a Physics Institute , Catholic University of Sacred Hearth , Rome , Italy.
    Introduction: The clinical challenge that research on antibacterial coatings faces nowadays is the need of reduction of resistant bacterial infections, major source of implant rejection and repeated surgery. In order to avoid microorganisms attachment and biofilm formation, coating materials on medical devices have been developed with shortcomings represented by short-term durability and induction of new mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Graphene-based films and hydrogel could represent the next generation protective coatings due to their excellent mechanical, chemical and thermal properties, high nanoparticle adsorption and antibacterial action. Areas covered: In this short commentary, we will report the recent developments of graphene oxide based coatings. Graphene oxide is a water-soluble derivative of graphene that allows high drug loading and miscibility with polymers, making it mouldable in any desired shape. Recent applications in wound healing and tissue engineering will be discussed as well as critical issues prior to clinical use of graphene oxide coatings. Expert commentary: The current evidence is insufficient to establish the efficacy of Graphene Oxide against bacteria and the durability of coatings. Further studies should clarify how to control Graphene Oxide antibacterial mechanism.

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