Am J Pathol 2016 10;186(10):2569-76
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Electronic address:
A single dose of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) during late prenatal or early postnatal development induces a high incidence of malignant schwannomas and gliomas in rats. Although T->A mutations in the transmembrane domain of the Neu (c-ErbB-2) gene are the driver mutations in ENU-induced malignant schwannomas, the molecular basis of ENU-induced gliomas remains enigmatic. We performed whole-genome sequencing of gliomas that developed in three BDIV and two BDIX rats exposed to a single dose of 80 mg ENU/kg body weight on postnatal day one. T:A->A:T and T:A->C:G mutations, which are typical for ENU-induced mutagenesis, were predominant (41% to 55% of all somatic single nucleotide mutations). T->A mutations were identified in all five rat gliomas at Braf codon 545 (V545E), which corresponds to the human BRAF V600E. Additional screening revealed that 33 gliomas in BDIV rats and 12 gliomas in BDIX rats all carried a Braf V545E mutation, whereas peritumoral brain tissue of either strain had the wild-type sequence. The gliomas were immunoreactive to BRAF V600E antibody. These results indicate that Braf mutation is a frequent early event in the development of rat gliomas caused by a single dose of ENU.