Eupafolin enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through cathepsin S-induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 expression and AMPK-mediated Bim up-regulation in renal carcinoma Caki cells.

Oncotarget 2016 Oct;7(40):65707-65720

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea.

Eupafolin, a flavone found in Artemisia princeps, has been reported for its anti-tumor activity in several cancer cells. In this study, we examined whether eupafolin could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that eupafolin alone and TRAIL alone had no effect on apoptosis. However, combined treatment with eupafolin and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki) cells, glioma cells (U251MG), and prostate cancer cells (DU145), but not normal cells [mesangial cells (MC) and normal mouse kidney cells (TCMK-1)]. Eupafolin induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational levels in cathepsin S-dependent manner, and over-expression of Mcl-1 markedly blocked apoptosis induced by combined treatment with eupafolin and TRAIL. In addition, eupafolin increased Bim expression at the post-translational levels via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of proteasome activity. Knock-down of Bim expression by siRNA inhibited eupafolin plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, combined treatment with eupafolin and TRAIL reduced tumor growth in xenograft models. Taken together, these results suggest that eupafolin enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via down-regulation of Mcl-1 and up-regulation of Bim in renal carcinoma Caki cells.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5323186PMC
October 2016

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