Plant Cell Rep 2016 Oct 23;35(10):2181-95. Epub 2016 Jul 23.
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, 6726, Szeged, Hungary.
Key Message: Selenite oppositely modifies cytokinin and nitric oxide metabolism in Arabidopsis organs. A mutually negative interplay between the molecules exists in selenite-exposed roots; and their overproduction causes selenite insensitivity. Selenium-induced phytotoxicity is accompanied by developmental alterations such as primary root (PR) shortening. Growth changes are provoked by the modulation of hormone status and signalling. Cytokinin (CK) cooperates with the nitric oxide (NO) in many aspects of plant development; however, their interaction under abiotic stress has not been examined. Selenite inhibited the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and reduced root meristem size through cell division arrest. The CK-dependent pARR5::GUS activity revealed the intensification of CK signalling in the PR tip, which may be partly responsible for the root meristem shortening. The selenite-induced alterations in the in situ expressions of cytokinin oxidases (AtCKX4::GUS, AtCKX5::GUS) are associated with selenite-triggered changes of CK signalling. In wild-type (WT) and NO-deficient nia1nia2 root, selenite led to the diminution of NO content, but CK overproducer ipt-161 and -deficient 35S:CKX2 roots did not show NO decrease. Exogenous NO (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine, SNAP) reduced the pARR5::GFP and pTCS::GFP expressions. Roots of the 35S:CKX and cyr1 plants suffered more severe selenite-triggered viability loss than the WT, while in ipt-161 and gsnor1-3 no obvious viability decrease was observed. Exogenous NO ameliorated viability loss, but benzyladenine intensified it. Based on the results, selenite impacts development by oppositely modifying CK signalling and NO level. In the root system, CK signalling intensifies which possibly contributes to the nitrate reductase-independent NO diminution. A mutually negative CK-NO interplay exists in selenite-exposed roots; however, overproduction of both molecules worsens selenite sensing. Hereby, we suggest novel regulatory interplay and role for NO and CK in abiotic stress signalling.