Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study.

Prof Richard Saffery, PhD
Prof Richard Saffery, PhD
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Principal Research Fellow
Parkville, VIC | Australia
Karri Silventoinen Aline Jelenkovic Reijo Sund Yoon-Mi Hur Yoshie Yokoyama Chika Honda Jacob vB Hjelmborg Sören Möller Syuichi Ooki Sari Aaltonen Fuling Ji Feng Ning Zengchang Pang Esther Rebato Andreas Busjahn Christian Kandler Kimberly J Saudino Kerry L Jang Wendy Cozen Amie E Hwang Thomas M Mack Wenjing Gao Canqing Yu Liming Li Robin P Corley Brooke M Huibregtse Kaare Christensen Axel Skytthe Kirsten O Kyvik Catherine A Derom Robert F Vlietinck Ruth Jf Loos Kauko Heikkilä Jane Wardle Clare H Llewellyn Abigail Fisher Tom A McAdams Thalia C Eley Alice M Gregory Mingguang He Xiaohu Ding Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen Henning Beck-Nielsen Morten Sodemann Adam D Tarnoki David L Tarnoki Maria A Stazi Corrado Fagnani Cristina D'Ippolito Ariel Knafo-Noam David Mankuta Lior Abramson S Alexandra Burt Kelly L Klump Judy L Silberg Lindon J Eaves Hermine H Maes Robert F Krueger Matt McGue Shandell Pahlen Margaret Gatz David A Butler Meike Bartels Toos Cem van Beijsterveldt Jeffrey M Craig Duarte L Freitas José Antonio Maia Lise Dubois Michel Boivin Mara Brendgen Ginette Dionne Frank Vitaro Nicholas G Martin Sarah E Medland Grant W Montgomery Youngsook Chong Gary E Swan Ruth Krasnow Patrik Ke Magnusson Nancy L Pedersen Per Tynelius Paul Lichtenstein Claire Ma Haworth Robert Plomin Gombojav Bayasgalan Danshiitsoodol Narandalai K Paige Harden Elliot M Tucker-Drob Sevgi Y Öncel Fazil Aliev Timothy Spector Massimo Mangino Genevieve Lachance Laura A Baker Catherine Tuvblad Glen E Duncan Dedra Buchwald Gonneke Willemsen Finn Rasmussen Jack H Goldberg Thorkild Ia Sørensen Dorret I Boomsma Jaakko Kaprio

Am J Clin Nutr 2016 Aug 13;104(2):371-9. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.

Objectives: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments.

Design: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling.

Results: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions.

Conclusions: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity.

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