The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

Authors:
Dr Anubha Mahajan, PhD
Dr Anubha Mahajan, PhD
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford
UK
Ravindranath Duggirala, Ph.D.
Ravindranath Duggirala, Ph.D.
University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Professor
Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics
Edinburg, TX | United States
Christian Fuchsberger Jason Flannick Tanya M Teslovich Vineeta Agarwala Kyle J Gaulton Clement Ma Pierre Fontanillas Loukas Moutsianas Davis J McCarthy Manuel A Rivas John R B Perry Xueling Sim Thomas W Blackwell Neil R Robertson N William Rayner Pablo Cingolani Adam E Locke Juan Fernandez Tajes Heather M Highland Josee Dupuis Peter S Chines Cecilia M Lindgren Christopher Hartl Anne U Jackson Han Chen Jeroen R Huyghe Martijn van de Bunt Richard D Pearson Ashish Kumar Martina Müller-Nurasyid Niels Grarup Heather M Stringham Eric R Gamazon Jaehoon Lee Yuhui Chen Robert A Scott Jennifer E Below Peng Chen Jinyan Huang Min Jin Go Michael L Stitzel Dorota Pasko Stephen C J Parker Tibor V Varga Todd Green Nicola L Beer Aaron G Day-Williams Teresa Ferreira Tasha Fingerlin Momoko Horikoshi Cheng Hu Iksoo Huh Mohammad Kamran Ikram Bong-Jo Kim Yongkang Kim Young Jin Kim Min-Seok Kwon Juyoung Lee Selyeong Lee Keng-Han Lin Taylor J Maxwell Yoshihiko Nagai Xu Wang Ryan P Welch Joon Yoon Weihua Zhang Nir Barzilai Benjamin F Voight Bok-Ghee Han Christopher P Jenkinson Teemu Kuulasmaa Johanna Kuusisto Alisa Manning Maggie C Y Ng Nicholette D Palmer Beverley Balkau Alena Stančáková Hanna E Abboud Heiner Boeing Vilmantas Giedraitis Dorairaj Prabhakaran Omri Gottesman James Scott Jason Carey Phoenix Kwan George Grant Joshua D Smith Benjamin M Neale Shaun Purcell Adam S Butterworth Joanna M M Howson Heung Man Lee Yingchang Lu Soo-Heon Kwak Wei Zhao John Danesh Vincent K L Lam Kyong Soo Park Danish Saleheen Wing Yee So Claudia H T Tam Uzma Afzal David Aguilar Rector Arya Tin Aung Edmund Chan Carmen Navarro Ching-Yu Cheng Domenico Palli Adolfo Correa Joanne E Curran Denis Rybin Vidya S Farook Sharon P Fowler Barry I Freedman Michael Griswold Daniel Esten Hale Pamela J Hicks Chiea-Chuen Khor Satish Kumar Benjamin Lehne Dorothée Thuillier Wei Yen Lim Jianjun Liu Yvonne T van der Schouw Marie Loh Solomon K Musani Sobha Puppala William R Scott Loïc Yengo Sian-Tsung Tan Herman A Taylor Farook Thameem Gregory Wilson Tien Yin Wong Pål Rasmus Njølstad Jonathan C Levy Massimo Mangino Lori L Bonnycastle Thomas Schwarzmayr João Fadista Gabriela L Surdulescu Christian Herder Christopher J Groves Thomas Wieland Jette Bork-Jensen Ivan Brandslund Cramer Christensen Heikki A Koistinen Alex S F Doney Leena Kinnunen Tõnu Esko Andrew J Farmer Liisa Hakaste Dylan Hodgkiss Jasmina Kravic Valeriya Lyssenko Mette Hollensted Marit E Jørgensen Torben Jørgensen Claes Ladenvall Johanne Marie Justesen Annemari Käräjämäki Jennifer Kriebel Wolfgang Rathmann Lars Lannfelt Torsten Lauritzen Narisu Narisu Allan Linneberg Olle Melander Lili Milani Matt Neville Marju Orho-Melander Lu Qi Qibin Qi Michael Roden Olov Rolandsson Amy Swift Anders H Rosengren Kathleen Stirrups Andrew R Wood Evelin Mihailov Christine Blancher Mauricio O Carneiro Jared Maguire Ryan Poplin Khalid Shakir Timothy Fennell Mark DePristo Martin Hrabé de Angelis Panos Deloukas Anette P Gjesing Goo Jun Peter Nilsson Jacquelyn Murphy Robert Onofrio Barbara Thorand Torben Hansen Christa Meisinger Frank B Hu Bo Isomaa Fredrik Karpe Liming Liang Annette Peters Cornelia Huth Stephen P O'Rahilly Colin N A Palmer Oluf Pedersen Rainer Rauramaa Jaakko Tuomilehto Veikko Salomaa Richard M Watanabe Ann-Christine Syvänen Richard N Bergman Dwaipayan Bharadwaj Erwin P Bottinger Yoon Shin Cho Giriraj R Chandak Juliana C N Chan Kee Seng Chia Mark J Daly Shah B Ebrahim Claudia Langenberg Paul Elliott Kathleen A Jablonski Donna M Lehman Weiping Jia Ronald C W Ma Toni I Pollin Manjinder Sandhu Nikhil Tandon Philippe Froguel Inês Barroso Yik Ying Teo Eleftheria Zeggini Ruth J F Loos Kerrin S Small Janina S Ried Ralph A DeFronzo Harald Grallert Benjamin Glaser Andres Metspalu Nicholas J Wareham Mark Walker Eric Banks Christian Gieger Erik Ingelsson Hae Kyung Im Thomas Illig Paul W Franks Gemma Buck Joseph Trakalo David Buck Inga Prokopenko Reedik Mägi Lars Lind Yossi Farjoun Katharine R Owen Anna L Gloyn Konstantin Strauch Tiinamaija Tuomi Jaspal Singh Kooner Jong-Young Lee Taesung Park Peter Donnelly Andrew D Morris Andrew T Hattersley Donald W Bowden Francis S Collins Gil Atzmon John C Chambers Timothy D Spector Markku Laakso Tim M Strom Graeme I Bell John Blangero E Shyong Tai Gilean McVean Craig L Hanis James G Wilson Mark Seielstad Timothy M Frayling James B Meigs Nancy J Cox Rob Sladek Eric S Lander Stacey Gabriel Noël P Burtt Karen L Mohlke Thomas Meitinger Leif Groop Goncalo Abecasis Jose C Florez Laura J Scott Andrew P Morris Hyun Min Kang Michael Boehnke David Altshuler Mark I McCarthy

Nature 2016 08 11;536(7614):41-47. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.

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August 2016
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