Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):449-57. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
Department of Oral Medicine, Leeds Dental Institute and School of Dentistry, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust/University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Electronic address:
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Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2014 Feb;26(1):63-73
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine, 2124 Cornell Road, Room 1190, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:
This article provides an overview of the published literature in English in the past 63 years involving the management of xerostomia and other oral complications of Sjögren's syndrome. The evidence supporting studied interventions was evaluated using published criteria. Read More
HNO 2003 Sep;51(9):739-47
Abteilung Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm.
Both sets of complaints, mouth dryness and a burning sensation of the oral mucosa, can have a variety of causes. Local and regional as well as systemic causes can be responsible for burning mouth syndrome. Diseases of the oral mucosa can have genetic, inflammatory, or neoplastic origins. Read More
Aust Dent J 2009 Dec;54(4):293-9
School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by burning pain in the tongue or other oral mucous membrane often associated with symptoms such as subjective dryness of the mouth, paraesthesia and altered taste for which no medical or dental cause can be found. The difficulty in diagnosing BMS lies in excluding known causes of oral burning. A pragmatic approach in clarifying this issue is to divide patients into either primary (essential/idiopathic) BMS, whereby other disease is not evident or secondary BMS, where oral burning is explained by a clinical abnormality. Read More
J Periodontol 2006 Dec;77(12):2090-2
University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI, USA.
Background: Glossodynia, or painful sensation of the tongue, can have a spectrum of etiologies, such as local infection, trauma, nerve damage, glossitis, or the enigmatic neuropathic pain syndrome, burning mouth disorder (BMD; also known as burning mouth syndrome). Careful history-taking, physical examination, and appropriate laboratory screening can differentiate these causes of glossodynia and direct further therapy.
Methods: A 73-year-old woman presented with several months of glossodynia having previously been diagnosed by her primary care physician with primary BMD. Read More